History 398 (Women in the West) Oral Histories, Student Papers, etc. 1979-1994
Archives 220

Summary Information

Repository
Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries
Title
History 398 (Women in the West) Oral Histories, Student Papers, etc.
ID
Archives 220
Date [inclusive]
1979-1994
General Physical Description note
approximate 95 items  7 linear feet  13 containers
Abstract
This collection primarily consists of projects related to women's history in the western United States, which were undertaken by students enrolled in Professor Susan Armitage's History 398 course between 1987 and 1994.

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Organizational History:

This collection primarily consists of projects related to women's history in the western United States, which were undertaken by students enrolled in Professor Susan Armitage's History 398 course between 1987 and 1994. These projects include audiotaped oral histories, student papers, release forms signed by the subjects of the oral interviews, and, in one case, a videotape of the interviewee. The collection also includes an oral history from the WSU Centennial Oral History Project, two family and personal histories written by subjects of the History 398 interviews, and a file of memos from Susan Armitage in regard to the contents of this collection.

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Arrangement note

The collection is divided into six series. Series One is History 398 Projects, 1987 (Boxes 1-2). This series includes History 398 projects completed during 1987. The series is arranged alphabetically according to the surname of the subject of the project. In most cases, the projects are dated according to their date of completion although, in some instances, where there is no date of completion, the projects are dated according to the date of the interview. In the rare instances where there is no date of completion or date of interview, the project is dated according to its semester of completion.

Series Two is History 398 Projects, 1988 (Box 3). This series includes History 398 projects completed during 1988. Same arrangement as Series One.

Series Three is History 398 Projects, 1990 (Boxes 4-6). This series includes History 398 Projects completed during 1990. Same arrangement as Series One.

Series Four is History 398 Projects, 1992 (Boxes 7-9). This series includes History 398 projects completed during 1992. Same arrangement as Series One.

Series Five is History 398 Projects, 1994 (Boxes 10-12). This series includes History 398 projects completed during 1994. Same arrangement as Series One.

Series Six is Miscellaneous, 1979-1994 (Box 13). This series, which consists of material from 1979 to 1994, includes two History 398 projects, one which is either from 1987 or 1988, and another from 1991. The series also includes two family and personal histories written by subjects of History 398 projects, as well as an oral history from the WSU Centennial Oral History Project. In addition, this series also includes a folder of memos written by Susan Armitage in regard to the contents of this collection. This series is arranged alphabetically according to the surnames of the subjects of the WSU Centennial Oral History and History 398 projects, and according to the surnames of the authors of the personal/family histories and memos. The oral histories, where possible, are dated according to their date of completion, as are the memos. The personal/family histories are dated according to their date of publication.

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Administrative Information

Publication Information

Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University Libraries

http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/masc
Terrell Library
P.O. Box 645610
Pullman, WA, 99164-5610
509-335-6691
mascref@wsu.edu

Conditions Governing Access note

The Collection is open for research use.

Immediate Source of Acquisition note

Oral histories, student reports, and associated papers primarily emanating from classes in women's history in the Western United States (History 398) taught by Professor Susan Armitage of the Washington State University History and American Studies departments were transferred to the Washington State University Libraries incrementally in January 1989, June 1990, August 1992, and December 1994 (Accessions MS89-05, MS90-31, MS92-47, and MS94-67). This material was combined into its present arrangement by amalgamation of the four dispersed sequences. Paul Schlienz processed this material during June and July of 1995. The collection was redescribed from April 2011 to October 2011 by History students Shawna Herzog and Sarita Wescott with University Archivist Mark O'English. That redescription of this collection, as well as digitization of audio/video materials for preservation purposes, was funded through a National Endowment for the Humanities “We the People” grant for Washington Women’s History to the Washington Women’s History Consortium, a part of the Washington State Historical Society.

Processing Information note

This material was combined into its present arrangement by amalgamation of the four dispersed sequences. Paul Schlienz processed this material during June and July of 1995.

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Related Materials

Related Archival Materials note

Archives 194: History 398 (Women in the West), 1979-1986 Archives 262: History 398 (Women in the West), 1996-2005 Most, though not quite all, of the oral histories in these three collections are now available online in the Women in the West Oral History Digital Collection.

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Controlled Access Headings

Corporate Name(s)

  • Washington State University. History Department (History 398 (Women in the West))--Archives
  • Washington State University. History Department (History 398 (Women in the West))--Records and correspondence

Personal Name(s)

  • Armitage, Susan H. (Susan Hodge), 1937---Archives

Subject(s)

  • Colleges and Universities
  • Oral Histories
  • Pacific Northwest History
  • Washington (State)
  • Women
  • Women's studies--Washington (State)--Pullman--Archives
  • Women--West (U.S.)--History--Archives
  • Women--West (U.S.)--Oral history--Archives

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Collection Inventory

 1 History 398 Projects 1987 

Box Folder

Chandlor, Lola. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Julie A. Hines, 1987. Born 1902; lived Caribel, Idaho; Nezperce, Idaho. Discusses her childhood life in a logging town of schooling, family life and chores. Discusses her marriage, children, how her husband modernized their farm, and the harvest time chores. She taught 4-H classes for 33 years and belongs to the community grange hall. 

1 1

Davis, Mildred L. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Susan Warner, 1987. Born 1910; lived Endicott, Washington; Colfax, Washington. Discusses community entertainment, school life from a single room school to a high school, and clothing people wore. Chores that were gender oriented on the farm included cleaning and cooking for the women and the manual labor and farm work for the men. She worked as a clerk until she married, and then she devoted her time to her family and farm. 

1 2

Durand, Pauline. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Noelle E. Rice, 1987. Born 1918; lived Bellingham, Washington; Walla Walla, Washington. Discusses her Eastern lifestyle growing up; she did not have to work when she was young or when she was married, but she was focusing on raising her children. Women went to college as a status symbol for their parents or to get married, but not for an education. She discusses the importance of socially acceptable and unacceptable behaviors when she was growing up and as an adult. 

1 3

Friel, Catherine M. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Andrea H Streng, 1987. Born 1901; lived Pullman, Washington. Discusses her childhood growing up in Pullman, watching the town and University grow. She married and they remained in Pullman to raise their children. She was involved with community clubs, volunteering, and knew many of the faculty members of the University including many Presidents and their wives. 

1 4

Grove, Jean Blake Germeraad. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary and paper by Elizabeth Serretto, 1987. Born 1916; lived Billings, Montana. She was the oldest of 7 children, her responsibilities made her like a second mother in addition to chores on the farm - both domestic and field work. The farm was very self sufficient; food was grown, water was carried in, sickness was cured with home remedies, and the social network was the farming community. She obtained a teaching degree which she did not use until her husband passed away. Her daughter had cerebral palsy. 

1 5

Hammond, Hazel told by Erma Simmons. Paper by Debbie Imel included photocopied pictures, 1987. Born 1898; lived Yakima Valley, Washington; Sunnyside, Washington; Zillah, Washington; Wapato, Washington. Discusses family Indian heritage, early encounters with other Indians, and family migration to the West coast. She talks about family chores and growing up in a big family, working on a farm, and then working for her daughters future after her first husbands died. Discusses family interrelations and working to help each other. 

1 6

Hancock, Mildred "Millie" Brueggeman. Interview (audiocassette with no consent form) summary and paper by Elizabeth Wilkins, 1987. Born 1920; lived Lind, Washington; Spokane, Washington. Discussion focuses on family ancestry, how both sides of her family came out west and established themselves. Discusses many subjects including childhood memories of school, farm chores, the Depression (which had little effect on the family), how she met her husband, marriage and children. 

1 7

Hargrave, Fortuna. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Stephen Thordarson, 1987. Born ca 1900; lived Seattle, Washington; New York, New York; Fairbanks, Alaska. Discusses working in many jobs over the course of her life; some included working in a sweat shop in New York, during World War II as a B-welder, and working in laundry services. She talked about raising her children and childcare while she worked. Discusses the difficulties of being a Jewish while growing up and working, and addressed unions, wages increase and discrimination of people by foremen during World War II. 

1 8

Holland, Dolly. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Elizabeth Reitsch, 1987. Born 1900; lived Littleton, Colorado; Denver, Colorado; Baker, Idaho; Portland, Oregon. Discusses childhood having a working mother, siblings; they had little money but it was a happy time. Working all of her life with her family to make money, she worked in many vocations: bakery, ice cream shop, laundry, farmer, and cook. She moved to Idaho when she was a teenager to live with relatives; she married later in life and did not have children. 

2 9

Moris, Maebelle. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Bobbie A. Laursen, 1987. Born 1888; lived Rockwood, Ontario (Canada); Spokane, Washington; Elk River, Idaho. Discusses childhood in a farming community which consisted of chores, school, and mischief making. She was married twice: the first husband was a pharmacist and she took over his job when he died and worked until she was 88 years old; the second husband was later in life and they traveled together. She discusses events that happened in the U.S.: the hippie movement, women's liberation movement, and the unionization movement. 

2 10

Ross, Alla. Interview (audiocassette with consent form and packet of family documentation), summary, and paper by Robert DeJong, 1987. Born 1896; lived Delphos, Kansas; Cashmere, Washington. She was a single woman teaching in Washington and taking care of her parents. Discusses the importance of family throughout her life noting her large family on a farm and her religious activities. She never felt that women and men were unequal whether on a farm or in a teaching career. 

2 11

Swan, Leila Voorhies. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Shawn McCoy, 1987. Born 1908; lived Porter, Washington; Bellingham, Washington; Centralia, Washington; Spokane, Washington. Discusses family relationship and problems that happened between her parents during her childhood. She talks about her schooling in a rural area, and her lifelong goal to become a librarian, which she achieved when she was 53 years old and had four children. She was employed as a teacher, and was the sole income earner for her family. 

2 12

Yoder, Wilma. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Lisa W. Bassett, 1987. Born 1899; lived La Grande, Oregon; Walla Walla, Washington; Kentucky. Discusses her childhood moving around with her family and her education up though a college Masters degree. She married her husband, a professor, and they moved to Kentucky where both taught at a small school. She discusses many opportunities regarding education, motherhood, marriage, teaching and being an active woman. 

2 13

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 2 History 398 Projects 1988 

Box Folder

Bellinger, Gladys Irene. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form; picture included) summary, and paper by Barbara L. Walker, 1988. Born ca. 1913-1914; lived Emporia, Kansas; Alameda, California; Moscow, Idaho . Farm life with her family was hard - a lot of chores but satisfying. She attended college, obtaining a teaching certificate, and worked in many schools teaching children and women from low income families, and had many teaching opportunities though out her life. She volunteered for the Navy WAVE program during World War II and for a couple years after the war was over; she discusses the uniform, what activities she planed, what tasks she learned, and where she was stationed. 

3 14

Galler, Christine Quintasket McLeoud (Mourning Dove or Humishuma). Paper by Colleen E. Murray, 1988. Born 1888; lived Bonner's Ferry, Idaho; Colville, Washington; Ward, Washington. She experienced many mission schools at ages 7 to 18 and continued her education in business college coursework consisting of shorthand, typewriting and bookkeeping. She wrote many books including Cogewea and Coyote Stories, and through her friendship with L.V. McWhorter they worked and got the books published. She remained working at low paying migrant jobs, putting up boarders, and renting the land she owned all throughout her life. When her health permitted she would travel to visit family. 

3 15

Hall, Elizabeth "Betty" Rose. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Debbie Nakata, 1988. Born 1914; lived Sunnyside, Washington; Pullman, Washington; Oklahoma. Discusses her college schooling opportunities, working part-time jobs, hardships, and her study of medicine in microbiology. She received her doctorate degree from Washington State University and continued teaching for 24 years; she faced many discriminatory actions because she was a woman. She was active throughout her whole life in the Public Health industries which continues today in her retirement. 

3 16

Jones, Marion M. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Judy Jones, 1988. Born 1918; lived Minneapolis, Minnesota; South Pasadena, California; Spokane, Washington; Cambridge, Massachusetts; Pullman, Washington. She had recurring incidents of illness though out her life which led to her embracing religion. She married and had to move the family all over the United States, but her family finally settled when her husband began teaching at Washington State University. She discusses her children's births, being active in her children's lives, being a housewife and building the family house. 

3 17

McNeil, Edna. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Myra Omofoma, 1988. Born 1915; lived Pullman, Washington. She discusses coming west with her family after she attended college with her husband during the depression. She worked at a Home Economics Research Lab when her children were at school, and then was a mother when her children were not in school. She was involved with many community activities and with the other mothers in her neighborhood. 

3 18

Patterson, Edna. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, short autobiography, and paper by Evelyne Pickett, 1988. Born 1907; lived Salina, Kansas; Denver, Colorado; Lamoille, Colorado. She discusses her education and her teaching experiences. She discusses marriage, living on a ranch with strict gender division of labor, and moving into town so her children could get a higher education. She wrote many books and articles about history; she and her husband established a museum and historical society. 

3 19

Russell, Pearl. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Lynne Daubenspeak, 1988. Born 1905; lived Hoquiam, Washington; Pullman, Washington. Discusses her father working, her mother dying, she taking over as mother, and discusses her college education and living in a dorm. She talks about the requirements for becoming a teacher and notes that it was a job for proper women. She discusses moving around Washington while her husband was working before finally coming to Pullman where her family settled down, and how small-town life was enjoyable. 

3 20

Skaug, Geneva. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Kristine Wildung, 1988. Born 1917; lived Blairsville, Georgia; Athens, Georgia; Los Angeles, California; Seattle, Washington. her childhood was filled with illness and family disasters. She married but had to move around a lot due to unemployment; her first husband had a drinking and became abusive until she took her children and left him. She moved out west, worked hard as a loan agent and in a research lab, put her children through college, and retired with her second husband. 

3 21

 

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 3 History 398 Projects 1990 

Box Folder

Austin, Helen. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Sarah Dorrance, 1990. Born 1915; lived Chicago, Illinois; Pullman, Washington; Kansas. She discusses her childhood in the Depression and going to college working odd jobs for money. She talks about how she and her husband both majored in chemistry, and the significance of that throughout their whole lives. She discusses how she had the best of two worlds working as a chemist and as a mother. 

4 22

Chaussee, Helen D. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Sandy Greenwalt, 1990. Born 1900; lived San Francisco, California; Seattle, Washington; Enumclaw, Washington. Discusses her family moving around the West coast, all the bakery work her family did, and education in a one room school. She discusses the great Depression and its effects on every part of her family. She discusses her marriage and her children, always encouraging them to be educated. See also box 13 folder 92 in this collection for a published, autobiographical account of Helen's early childhood and her experiences in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake: Helen D. Chaussee, The Olden Days (Rockville, MD: Locus Press, 1979). 

4 23

Doherty, Clara Lenora. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Quinn Bakke, 1990. Born 1921; lived Moscow, Idaho; Lewiston Orchards, Idaho; Walla Walla, Washington; California. She discusses her childhood growing up on a farm, what chores she did, and her involvement with school; she tells the story of working as a domestic servant to pay for her high schooling. She worked at many jobs to support her five boys after her husband left her, notable with the telephone company and western auto. She opened the first child care facility in Moscow, Idaho so she would be able to see her children and work at the same time. 

4 24

Fosberg, Margaret Williams. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Shannon Kennedy, 1990. Born 1921; lived Roanoke, Alabama; LeGrange, Alabama; Moscow, Idaho. She discusses the family farm where everyone was working together, and encouragement from her parents to go to college. She earned a degree in nursing and worked her whole life in a maternity ward and in student health services at University of Idaho, even though she was married and had children. Her marriage was one of equality and cooperative parenting of the children. 

4 25

Glunk, Ruth. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Russel Clark, 1990. Born ca 1920-1925; lived Pullman, Washington. Her childhood was spent doing domestic chores on the farm; she only finished high school after which she married. She discusses being a housewife taking care of the house, children, and activities with the children and husband. She worked during World War II in Commons Hall as a cook to feed the soldiers. 

4 26

Gordon, Ellen B. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Celina Esch, 1990. Born 1908; lived Skamania, Washington; Portland, Oregon; Roseburg, Oregon. Discusses her childhood on the ranch working both in the fields and domestic work, and notes how the depression and World War I affected the family. She married young to a logger, and as a result had to move around a lot for work and so she was mainly a housewife. She discusses life in a logging town and what entertainment she and her husband enjoyed. 

4 27

Hollinger, Eileen Exleton. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Laura Woodworth, 1990. Born 1914; lived Bristol, Oklahoma; Twin Falls, Idaho; Moscow, Idaho. She discusses her childhood on a Oklahoma reservation, her family laundry store, and her education. Worked as an auditor's assistant though most of her adult life, which led to her interest in history and helped her develop the Minidoka County Historical Society and Museum. During World War II she experienced many moves with her growing family due to her husband being transferred around a lot; this resulted in family traveling to historical sites in Idaho. 

5 28

Hood, Lucille Fern Laurance. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), short autobiography, summary, full transcript, and paper by Kathryn E. Meyer, 1990. Born 1916; lived Johnson, Washington; Pullman, Washington. She discusses her family's working hard, her education, and working at a young age for her aunt and then for a telephone agency until she was married. She discusses how important family is, and raising her children. Many tragedies happened in her life and there were trials of living in the west in a sheep ranch, but she took them in stride and coped. 

5 29

Hopkins, Helen. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Liza R. Rognas, 1990. Born 1897; lived Boise, Idaho. She discusses her early years living with her family, and young adult life before marriage. She was a housewife who supported her husband and took care of her child, her small family moved around a lot due to her husband's job. She talks about being part of the middle class during the depression. She discusses leisure activities of volunteering, dancing, etiquette and traveling around with family. 

5 30

Inchaupse, Grace. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, full transcript, and paper by Evelyne Pickett, 1990. Short interview with Evaline Inchaupse also included. Birthdate unknown; lived Austin, Nevada. Discusses coming to the United States with her husband and setting up a sheep ranch in Nevada. The chores and gender roles are mirrored by those from the Pyrenees, wherein the whole family works hard and chips in with all the work. She discusses the self-isolation to keep the family and cultural traditions alive and the influences of those traditions on the family roles, works and children. 

5 31

Keener, Adaline. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Tina A. Oswald, 1990. Born 1905; lived Oklahoma; Joseph, Idaho; Cottonwood, Idaho. Discusses her childhood at home with her family and her education as a child. She married, lived on a ranch with her husband until he died then she moved to Cottonwood so her sons could attend high school. She discusses World War II's effect on her family, the Depression and what jobs she held throughout her life. 

5 32

White, Betty Marie. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Tina A. Oswald, 1990. Born ca. 1930-1936; lived Grangeville, Idaho; Cottonwood, Idaho; Moscow, Idaho. Discusses her childhood living on a ranch, domestic chores done by women and field work done by men, her early education, and no sex education from her parents. She discusses her marriage and her children, raising them differently then how she was raised. She worked on and off though out her whole life to help support her family but believes that women need an education, marriage, then a career. 

White, Terri. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Tina A. Oswald, 1990. Born 1960; lived Grangeville, Idaho; Missoula, Montana; Orofino, Idaho. Discusses her childhood with her family: very family orientated and education was important. She discusses the roles her parents had in the family, the expectations of her as a child, and the many different religious aspects of her life. She went to college and loved the experience; she believes that a woman does not need to marry to be happy and that women can be independent. 

Knapp, Patricia Henry. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Brooke Modrell Record, 1990. Born 1919; lived Pullman, Washington; San Diego, California. Discusses her education, which was not restricted to the stereotypes of gender, and how she always did what she wanted with her education. During World War II she went to work in a airplane factory and worked up to a Process Engineer but was not paid the same as the men; she worked throughout her life in many different positions and jobs. She was married to a patient she treated while she worked in a Veterans hospital; she could not have children so they adopted. 

5 33

Leinweber, Elizabeth. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Kathleen Bell, 1990. Born ca. 1900; lived Endicott, Washington; St. Maries, Idaho; Wilcox, Washington. Discusses her family's journey to America to settle in Washington on a farm, the chores she did on the farm and working until she married. She lived on a farm with her husband; many trials but by working together they were able to accomplish a lot. Discusses her cooking habits and the ways of storing food for the winter before refrigerators. 

6 34

Lillibridge, Mary Gowran. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Lara Weig, 1990. Born 1901; lived Grand Forks, North Dakota; Yelm, Washington; Olympia, Washington. She discusses her family's influences in her education through college to becoming an occupational therapist while her husband was a doctor. She discusses her family of three children, how they were disciplined, their education, and community organizations. She helped with the development of many social clubs in Olympia and of telephone lines to outlying areas. 

6 35

Merry, Letha. Interview (2 audiocassette with consent form; picture included) summary and paper by Linda Gauthier, 1990. Born 1916; lived Palouse, Washington. She discusses her childhood wherein her father was in control and mother was the hardworking housewife; the chores that she and her siblings were gendered chores and the farm was very self sufficient. She discusses the difference in her marriage compared to her mother's, and how successful marriage is based on respect. She worked outside the home until her adopted son arrived, then was a committed housewife to her husband, children, and home. 

6 36

Perry, Mignon. Interview (micro-cassette with consent form) and paper by Anne Amey, 1990. Born 1920; lived Pullman, Washington. She describes her childhood within the Mormon community in Logan, Utah and her family's support for her education. She talks about her experiences during the Great Depression and the effects of WWII on her friends and classmates. She explains how she obtained her PhD at Utah State, taught Home Economics at Washington State University, and then became the chair for the Clothing and Textiles Department. 

6 37

Roberts, Bonnie. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Barbara Freier, 1990. Born ca. 1900-1915; lived Diamond, Washington; Wallowa Lake, Oregon. Discusses her college experience and meeting her husband; the dating and courting of her time. She talks about working all of her life in many areas including newspapers, farms and as a store manager. 

6 38

Storm, Lillie. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Lisa Sawyer, 1990. Born 1910; lived Leadvill, Colorado; Battle Ground, Washington. Discusses her childhood working on the farm doing girl chores and her experiences in a one-room rural school. Discusses the weekly domestic chores she helped with, the religious activities and social activities. She discusses her reasons for not marrying and how she has been independent. 

6 39

Westfall, Berneice. Interview (2 audiocassette with consent form with active restriction) summary and paper by Angela G. Schmidt, 1990. Born 1903; lived Mitchell, Nebraska; Chicago, Illinois; Pullman, Washington. Discusses her family often moving around in the east due to financial, health, family and working conditions. Discusses jobs that she had during her life and her opinion of family. 

6 40

White, Euna. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by W. Arlene Lavender, 1990. Born 1920; lived Talala, Oklahoma; Duncan, Oklahoma. Discussed female family members and their lives coming out west. Includes discussion of farm chores: all helped in the crops, raising animals, harvest, but the girls did all the domestic work. A lot of manual labor went into just getting basic chores done. The life choices of all the women are discussed, including education, work, marriage and religion. 

6 41

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 4 History 398 Projects 1992 

Box Folder

Alexenko, Kate. Interview (audiocassette with consent form) and paper by Phyllis Hults, 1992. Born 1913; lived Killdeer, North Dakota; Bozeman, Montana; Walla Walla, Washington. She discusses farm life including walking to school, the chores, how many children and what her father did for money. She married a farm man and they moved multiple times but family stuck together and worked together. Talks about the domestic work, child bearing and the effort in running a farm. 

7 42

Berta, Romona. Paper (with consent form) by Stacy A. Smith, 1992. Born 1906; lived Butte, Montana. Discusses immigrating to America, migrating to the West with her family, and the challenges adjusting to America as a child and in a mining town. She talks about what work she did for money while in school and how after she met her husband at a dance she had to give up working as married women were not suppose to work. She discusses her marriage, children and the clubs she was active in. 

7 43

Boone, Fay Middlebusher. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Erin O'Connor, 1992. Born 1918; lived Centralia, Washington. Discuses growing up in a logging town on a small farm, her family interactions, what she did as a child, and her education. She discusses not having sex education, her abortion, and why girls were discriminated against in her family. She discusses working for the government after her divorces, and enjoyed visiting many lands and cultures while working overseas. 

7 44

Cambron, Jewel Hickerson. Interview summary and paper by Crystal Cambron, 1992. Born 1906; lived Fort Bidwell, California; Pine Creek, Oregon. Discusses her parents role reversals of mother working and father staying at home, attending college, and her experiences as a teacher. The Depression and many hardships are discussed as well as business, moving off the ranch, childbirth, and her husband's working for the Works Progress Administration. Discusses the effects the community had on raising a family, living in a community, and social lives. She returned to work to help the family many times throughout her life, including teaching during World War II. 

7 45

Campbell, Louise Claret. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Michelle Jenner, 1992. Born 1923; lived Goldendale, Washington; Twin Lakes, Idaho; Spokane, Washington; Pasco, Washington. Discusses her childhood moving around a lot, her mother leaving the family, becoming independent at a young age, and attending college. When World War II broke out her husband signed up for the Marine Corps, finished college and went to officers school, while she signed up for the WAVE until she had her first child. Discusses working on and off thoughout her life for her family and herself. 

7 46

Dickinson, Lacetta Marie. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Dianna Rice, 1992. Born 1899; lived Tilden, Nebraska; Arlington, Washington; Gorst, Washington. Discusses her many illnesses and accidents during her childhood until moving to Washington. She talks about her schooling, getting married early and taking care of her young family all by herself. She worked during the Depression, and her sons helped her at home a lot. She remarried and formed a happier family that lived together. She discusses the work she did during World War II as a welder, and all of her social activities. 

7 47

Edd, Ruth Caroline. Paper by Tanja Trainer, 1992. Born 1925; lived Cottonwood Lake, North Dakota; Williston, North Dakota; Seattle, Washington. She discusses her childhood as part of a tenant farmers family, work done with the farm hands, going to school, and the non-existent sex education. After she was married her family was greatly affected by the Depression so the family was thrifty; some separated to live with relatives and her husband worked for the Workers Progress Administration. She worked in a iron works in Washington during World War II making torpedoes. She discusses her retirement. 

7 48

Gabel, Dottie. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Teanna Kurtz, 1992. Born 1923; lived Birmingham, Alabama; Pasco, Washington; Richland, Washington. Discussed her schooling in Birmingham and Washington DC; she did not see much segregation towards black students. She discusses meeting her husband and moving to Washington (state) to work on Hanford. Worked at Hanford; she discusses the secrecy of what they were helping build and housing provided by the government; she worked there until she retired. 

7 49

Gaiser, Marian Estelle Blaser. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form) summary and paper by Shannon Donnelly, 1992. Born 1916; lived Cleveland, Ohio; Tacoma, Washington. Discusses the labor intensive domestic work that had to be done to keep house, financial hardships the family faced and the education she received which did not include sex education. Discusses taking care of the small farm after marriage, her children, and going to work during World War II and its effects on the family. She was active in social activities, and talks about the partnership in her marriage. 

7 50

Gaunt, Dorothy Elaine. Paper and summary by Jaime Schoessler, 1992. Born 1926; lived Memphis, Tennessee; Seattle, Washington. Discusses her childhood which was affected by the Depression. She valued education and working hard. She married, becoming a housewife, which she was happy doing. She also discusses moving her family around a lot and her volunteer work. 

7 51

Hamaker, Julia. Paper by Sarah Pritchett, 1992. Born 1881; lived Webster City, Iowa. Talks about life in early America before the revolutionary war, her ancestry, what she did in life, and who she married. 

7 52

Haussler, Pearl Elizabeth. Interview (audiocassette with consent form) summary, photogrpah, paper and extra documents by Thomas Clay Riel, 1992. Born 1914; lived Kellogg, Idaho; Omak, Washington. Discusses her childhood of working hard due to her mother passing away, she took care of her younger siblings and did domestic chores; only attended school until the tenth grade. She discusses her marriages; she worked in a bakery and was a housewife at the same time until they sold off their bakery. Husband went into politics and she supported him until his retirement. 

7 53

Herrick, Clara R. Paper and summary by Rachel D Knight, 1992. Born 1908; lived Cascade, Idaho. She discusses her childhood working on a farm with a tough father and a loving mother. She discusses courtship, and marriage as a partnership with a kind man in a good family. 

8 54

Hibbs, Esther Leonard. Interview (audiocassette with consent form) paper and extra documents by Althea L Sexton, 1992. Born 1902; lived Pullman, Washington. She discusses the chores on the farm which she and her siblings did in the field and around the house. Discusses meeting her husband, their marriage, living on a ranch which was hard work for her, and raising her children. 

8 55

Krick, Florence Olive. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Gregory A. Kinyon, 1992. Born 1909; lived Chewelah, Washington; Deer Park, Washington. Discusses her childhood moving around with her family, wanting to join the circus, her chores, and parents' interactions with her. Discusses her courtship, marriage, and living on a ranch with her husband. Discusses the hard life living on a ranch with all the work and upkeep of the ranch. 

8 56

Ide, Clara Katheleen. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Carolyn Huesties, 1992. Born 1905; lived Pasco, Washington. She married and became a housewife with six children on a farm. She discusses the chores she had to do and raising her children. Even when sick she completed her chores because they had to be done. She moved multiple times with a family to where the jobs were, until they settled in Washington and she had to learn not to be a mother to her grown up children but a wife to a man who worked out in the fields. 

8 57

Lindsay, Rosella Doherty. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Theresa M. Lindsay, 1992. Born 1910; lived Pendleton, Oregon. She discusses her Irish heritage and its influences on her life as a Catholic in Pendleton; she went to a private school until she attended a one room school. She became a teacher until she married and moved out to a ranch with her husband, becoming a housewife and mother. She discusses the hard life on the ranch of constant chores and work, but found it very rewarding. 

8 58

Locke, Mary. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Lara Ursin, 1992. Born ca. 1905-1915; lived South Prairie, Washington. Discusses her childhood working on a dairy farm and her education. She married and moved with husband to help run a logging mill until it was shut down and she returned to school to get her LPN degree. 

8 59

Macquarrie, Verna. Interview (audiocassette with consent form) summary, photos and paper by Lisa Smoldon, 1992. Born 1911; Colfax, Washington. She discusses her childhood moving around, going to school, saving up money for business school and then working many jobs before she was married. Her new family moved around a lot to farming and boarding houses for husbands health; she always had a lot of chores and raised the children. 

8 60

Pedersen, Bernice. Interview (audiocassette; no consent form) summary and paper by Kelly Kennedy, 1992. Born 1912; lived Sequim, Washington; Enumclaw, Washington; Seattle, Washington. She talks about early family life, Depression era challenges, parents' divorce, and family alcoholism issues. She worked in factories during the Great Depression. She and her husband owned Seattle-area taverns. Talks about her children and family life. 

9 61

Rognas, Anita Staigmiller. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Nanette J. Macy, 1992. Born 1940; lived Great Falls, Montana; Lewiston, Idaho. She talks about her definition of a 'western woman,' her early family life in Great Falls, and family dynamics. She describes the rural isolation, and her mother's difficulties caring for her older, disabled sister. She and her younger sister were the first college graduates, in spite of her father's objections. Anita was married, had two daughters, and became a teacher in Great Falls, before moving to Idaho. 

9 62

Spry, Mable. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Jon Maple, 1992. Born 1919; lived Tonasket, Washington; Seattle, Washington. She talks about her childhood and family life growing up on a cattle ranch in Idaho. She talks about her domestic life, raising her children, and moving because of her husband's employment. She also describes how she endured domestic abuse as a result of alcoholism. 

9 63

Waller, Abigail Elizabeth. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by April Seehafer, 1992. Born 1917; lived Walla Walla, Washington; Oregon, and Idaho. She talks about her early childhood and moving around the Pacific Northwest. She discusses her parents dedication to their daughter's educations and the family's constant financial struggles. She married three times, and in her adult life she continued to move around Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. She talks about the various jobs and experiences throughout her working life. There is a small discussion about her needing to establish U.S. citizenship in 1965 because her mother was a Canadian. 

9 64

Warnick, Kathleen Maxwell Orr Porter. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Jennifer Porter, 1992. Born 1922; lived Buhl, Idaho; Moscow, Idaho. She talks about her early childhood and growing up on an orchard in southern Idaho. She specifically describes holiday meals and activities with her family. After the death of her first husband, she returned home and became a history and civics teacher, then moved on to teach at the University of Idaho. After marrying her second husband, she describes her life as a homemaker and mother of five boys in the Moscow community. Please see box 13 folder 94 in this collection for a family published history, collected from numerous members of the Peeples and Orr families, discussing everyday life during the 1920s and 1930s, family accomplishments and remembrances, and accounts of their educations. Titled 'Margret Peeples and the Orr Girls,' this volume contains photos and anecdotes from several members of the family from a 1990 reunion. 

9 65

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 5 History 398 Projects 1994 

Box Folder

Andersen, Lucile. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Stephanie Spencer, 1994. Born 1909; lived Tacoma, Washington. She talks about her early years in Tacoma, going to the theater with her family, then dance halls with her friends. She describes marrying and working odd jobs in addition to raising five children. She was a member of several community groups including the Ancient Order of United Workmen (AOUW), the Eagles, the Grange, and the Carpenters. 

10 66

Baker, Ruth Kellog. Paper by Michelle Tremlin, 1994. (No audiocassette, summary, or consent form.) Born 1892; lived, Washington. This paper was written from Ruth Baker's autobiography, 'The Life History of Ruth Kellog Baker,' Washington State University Archives, 1974, and describes the life of Ruth's father and mother in Ohio and how they arrived in the Pacific Northwest and began the Northwest Tribune. She explains that it was her father who initiated the development and renaming of Cheney, Washington. She describes her early childhood in Waterville, her parent's focus on education and reading, as well as how she learned to play several musical instruments. Her family moved to Wenatchee, Washington and she eventually became a teacher. As an adult, Ruth describes her two marriages, several moves around the state, and raising her children during World Wars and the great Depression. 

10 67

Chamberlin, Geraldine Fay Davis. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, photos, and paper by Celena N. Kathan. Born 1921; lived Spokane, Washington. She talks about her early childhood in Spokane and living poor. She recalls helping her father bottle beer during Prohibition and raising livestock to feed the family. She lived in Seattle when Pearl Harbor was attacked and remembers her life during both World Wars and the Great Depression; she talks about her social life as a young woman, her experiences with new, modern appliances, and family vacations. 

10 68

Chase, Ada Jane. Paper by Michelle Bruce, 1994. (No audiocassette, summary, or consent form.) Born 1852; lived Ann Arbor, Michigan; Salmon, Idaho. This paper was written from Jean Cooper's The Story of Ada Jane (no publication information given) and describes the early childhood of Ada Jane Chase in Newberg and Ann Arbor Michigan, and her family's decision to move West. She remembers the outbreak of the Civil War and recognizing the bitter hatred between northerners and southerners as her family made their way across the country. There is a detailed description of their life on a wagon train. She describes her marriage in 1870 to Henry Clay Merritt, their move to Salmon, Idaho, the death of her husband, and her managing the Salmon newspaper. She married two more times, and dies in Santa Monica, California. 

10 69

Corliss, Alice Eche Wait. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Janis Reep, 1994. Born 1909; lived Sumner, Washington. Alice describes her childhood on a farm in Puyallup, Washington. She talks about her chores, raising animals, gardening, and the preparation and preservation of food. She talks about the various jobs she held until she married her first husband and moved to Sumner. She talks about the Great Depression and her political differences with her employer. Alice had a developmentally delayed daughter who had to be institutionalized at 14; this incident, and the Catholic priest's neglect of her, initiated her conversion from the Catholic to the Presbyterian church. 

10 70

Currie, Annabelle Lee Fleming. Interview (audiocassette with consent form) and paper by Tiffany Vanderlinde, 1994. Born 1925; lived Reardan, Washington. She talks about her early childhood on their wheat farm and growing up in Reardan. A student at Washington State College during World War II, Ann describes campus life, dating, and sorority life. After she married, Ann and her husband moved to San Francisco, California; she had three children, went back to school, and became an English teacher. Her brother served in World War II, but returned to run the family farm. The paper explains that Ann did not experience struggle in her life, in spite of the difficulties so many experienced during the period. 

10 71

Emerson, Ann. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Jerry M. Scott, 1994. Born,1924; lived Juneau, Alaska; Douglas Island, Alaska; Albion, Washington. She talks about her early childhood on Douglas Island, Alaska, the relationship she had with her father, and the various jobs she held in the Juneau area. She moved to the states in 1943, and describes her job as a babysitter and the Seattle nightlife during the 1940s. She married her husband in 1944 and moved to Albion, Washington where she stayed and raised eight children. All of her children are now married and she continues to be active in the community. 

10 72

Foskett, Elizabeth Lucille Brown. Paper by Nicole Foskett, 1994. (No audiocassette, summary, or consent form.) Born 1905; lived Plaza, Washington; Pasco, Washington; Ventura, California; Portland, Oregon. This paper describes the early childhood of Elizabeth and her life on a farm in Plaza, Washington. She moved to Rosalia, Washington when she was fifteen and worked as a switchboard operator to pay for nursing school. At 18, she moved to Spokane to attend nursing school and lived in the nurses' dormitory. She quit school when she met her husband, who was a doctor at the hospital, married, and moved to Pasco, Washington. They moved to Ventura, California for a few years, but she returned to Washington while her husband went to help in New Guinea for three years. After her husband died, she moved to Portland, Oregon, returned and finished nursing school, then worked for a few year before retiring. 

10 73

Goddard, Virginia Pearl. Interview (3 microcassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Dawn M. Bartlett, 1994. Born 1924; lived Herford, Texas; Sumner, Washington. She describes her early childhood living on a farm outside Herford, Texas, doing chores around the house, and spending time with her family. She moved into Herford with her grandmother to attend high school, and when she graduated, she moved to Canyon, Texas where she went West Texas State Teacher's College. She describes the racial segregation in the towns where she lived, and says she cannot remember any other races around her when she was young. When she graduated college in 1943 she was hired at the American Zinc Company in Amarillo, Texas. She met her husband Bertie who was working at AZC, and moved to Sumner, Washington to marry him. She raised three children and describes her family life and the paths each one of her children took into adulthood. Twenty years her senior, her husband died when Virginia was 61 and she continues to work training race horses in Sumner, Washington. 

10 74

Griffith, Iris. Interview (microcassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Kimberly Schmitz, 1994. Lived, Spokane, Washington. Iris was born in Hillyard Washington and moved to Spokane when she was twelve. She describes her early childhood, the last memory she has of her deceased mother, and the difficulty she and her family had when her mother died. She and her four siblings had to live in the Spokane Children's Home until their father remarried a year later. Iris talks about her difficulties in school and the hardships she faced as an outsider in a new neighborhood. She met her husband in her junior year of high school and married him while he was on leave from the army. In 1945, after he returned from the war, they bought their house in Spokane; she was still in that house at the time of the interview. Iris had four children and, eventually met and became good friends with Marge Munkers through their children. She describes raising her children and their activities. 

11 75

Munkers, Marge. Interview (microcassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Kimberly Schmitz, 1994. Lived, Spokane, Washington. Marge was born and raised on 17th St. and Mt. Vernon, in Spokane. She talks about her early childhood in Spokane, her parents, and the fun she had in her neighborhood growing up. Marge's parents came over from Bristol, England; they had tickets to take the maiden voyage of the Titanic but accidentally missed their train and had to catch a later ship. Marge explains that her family was fairly poor, but that the children had a great time with the other children in the park close to their house. She describes the activities provided by the city parks service, and talks about riding the streetcar that passed in front of her house. She married when she was twenty, her husband, who worked for the Spokesman Review, went away for World War I, and returned safely. They moved to Seattle, had two sons, and Marge describes her years as a housewife. 

11 75

Grimes, Dorothy. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Midori A. Vasquez, 1994. Born 1908; lived Moscow, Idaho; Pullman, Washington. She talks about her early childhood on a farm, her mother's canning, washing, and sewing, as well as her own responsibilities for the family. Dorothy describes her school years, how she obtained her teaching certificate from Lewiston Normal School, and became a teacher at the age of seventeen. She talks about her various experiences as a teacher in rural schools . She married her husband, moved to Pullman, Washington, and raised two children. She laments the increased student population in Pullman after the GI Bill. Dorothy started working once her children were out of the house and, since the death of her husband, volunteers and continues to be active in her community. 

11 76

Hatley, Harriet Kozicek. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Joseph R. McGeshick, 1994. Born 1920; lived Waitsburg, Washington; Walla Walla, Washington; Union Flat, Washington. She talks about her early childhood on her parent's cattle ranch outside Waitsburg, Washington. They raised fruit and beef, and she describes the chores and responsibilities of ranch life. She met her husband in high school and she describes how he courted her while she attended business college in Walla Walla. They married in 1939, and she talks about the birth of their three children and purchase of 97 acres to farm in Union Flat, Washington. Harriet describes her family life on the farm and how much she loved her husband and children. 

11 77

Knaeble, Dorothy Ann. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Jennifer Arenchild, 1994. Born 1918; lived Annandale, Minnesota; Anderson, California. This interview was given by Dorothy's two daughters, Nettie Bloom and Ilie Kofford due to Dorothy's untimely death. They describe their mother's early childhood living on a farm in Annandale, Minnesota; Dorothy's family raised chickens and sold vegetables and eggs for extra money. The daughters remember their mother's fond memories of dances and her many social freedoms as a child. Dorothy was only able to complete the eighth grade because her parents could not afford to pay for shoes and supplies; she was very proud of her brother who graduated high school. She married at 19, and moved to Bly, Oregon. Her daughters describe Dorothy's experience with rationing during World War II. Her family moved to Anderson, California in 1951 where she remained active in her community and children's lives until her death in 1993. 

11 78

Leonard, Audrey. Interview (audiocassette and VHS tape with consent form), summary, and paper by Ashley Cooper, 1994. Born 1920; lived Opportunity, Montana; Pullman, Washington. She describes her early childhood and moving from Opportunity to Spokane and then to Pullman. She explains that her father was initially a strawberry farmer, but performed many jobs to support his nine children. She describes her young adult years in Pullman, the closeness of the community and campus, and the sense of freedom from drugs or violence. She married her husband at nineteen and went to Seattle, but moved around because of her husband's career; eventually, they settled in Spokane. She describes her life as a housewife and the everyday expectations of her family. Since the death of her husband, Audrey remains active in the Spokane community and remains in contact with her surviving brothers and sisters. 

11 79-80

McCutcheon, Nelda Lucille. Interview (3 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Stephanie Anderson, 1994. Born 1905; lived Metz, Iowa; Seattle, Washington. She describes her early childhood on a farm in Iowa, the daily household chores, and their primary sources of food. She talks about the classes she took in school and her relationship with her family. She talks about being teased by English students during WWI about having a German last name as well as the flu epidemic. Between WWI and WWII, Nelda's family left Iowa because of a drought that bankrupted most of the farmers; her father looked for work and Nelda and her sister went to nursing school. She and her husband Mac moved to Seattle in 1932, and Nelda describes the city, its nightlife, and avoiding Prohibition laws. Nelda talks about the rationing during WWII, and her husband's experiences with Boeing. Her husband died at the age of 83 and Nelda is sad about how the world around her has changed; she no longer feels safe in her community. At the end of the interview, she gives her thoughts on modern US foreign policy in Iraq, Panama, and Palestine. 

12 81

Metcalf, Ruth Forehand. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Heather Metcalf, 1994. Born 1918; lived Seattle, Washington. She talks about her early childhood growing up in the Seattle area, dances, and dating rituals during the 1930s. She explains that her father stressed the importance of education and she went to secretarial school in 1937; she used these skills to work for the Air Service Command during WWII. Ruth's mother died from ovarian cancer in 1941; then, she married her husband Kermit in 1941. Her husband worked for Boeing and, Ruth describes returning to a part-time job and community college after the births of her three children in order to obtain her Associates degree. She talks about her family's personal crisis at the loss of her last baby girl, as well as her experiences of worry about atomic warfare in the 1960s. 

12 82

Miller, Barbara Marie Kern. Interview (microcassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Lorraine Miller, 1994. Born 1933; lived Anaheim, California. She talks about her early childhood and how important religion was to her family. Barbara attended a Catholic parochial school and she explains that her experiences with the nuns in the Catholic school were what shaped her ideas about the world around her and affected the choices she made in life. She describes wanting to be a wife and mother as a small girl, and explains how that was the way most girls in her group felt. She married her husband Clifford in 1954, birthed, and raised eight children as a stay-at-home-mother. She describes being very involved in her children's lives and, after her last child entered school, Barbara's reentering the work force. She explains that she eventually ended up at the Orange County Children Services department. She talks about the many changes that she has seen in Anaheim over the years. Barbara says that she has watched the intrusion of pollution, smog, two-lane roads converted to six-lane freeways, and over population during her lifetime in Southern California. 

12 83

Moyer, Esther Mael. Interview (2 audiocassettes with consent form), summary, and paper by Melodie Dark, 1994. Born 1909; lived Potlatch, Idaho; Pullman, Washington; Colfax, Washington. Betty was born in a log cabin on a homestead in Potlatch, Idaho. She talks about her father's Dutch heritage and her mother's Cherokee roots. She describes her early childhood on a farm outside of Pullman, Washington where she lived from the time she was three, with her aunt and uncle, after her father's death. Later, after graduating from Pullman High School, and attending Washington State College for a year, she moved to Portland, Oregon to live with her mother. This is where she met her first husband who was a naval intelligence office. Soon after they were married she and her husband moved to San Diego, but her husband tragically disappeared on a business trip to Miami, Florida. After working a variety of jobs and moving around the Pacific Northwest, Betty was promoted to an inspector position at Boeing, and moved to San Francisco, California; this is where she met her second husband. Eventually, she and her second husband, Jess, return to the Palouse and worked for two ranch families as foreman and housekeeper. After the death of her second husband in 1972, Betty moved to Colfax. She talks about being proud of her Native American ancestry. 

12 84

Painter, Hazel Teed. Paper by Stephanie Thummel, 1994. (No audiocassette, summary, or consent form.) This paper describes Hazel's early childhood moving west to Boise, Idaho from Iowa. She explains that the climate was so dry and difficult to farm, her family eventually moved twenty miles away, to Kuna, Idaho, were her father established the first post office. She describes her responsibilities at the post office, and her experiences delivering the mail. She talks about her going to school, how important water was to her family, and the trials they endured for lack of it. The entire paper focuses on Hazel's experiences as a child growing up in Kuna, Idaho 

12 85

Renfrew, Pearl. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Shannon Pickens, 1994. Born 1919; lived, Moscow, Idaho. She talks about her early childhood growing up on a farm outside of Moscow, Idaho. Her family had livestock, wheat, and orchards they harvested to support the family. The youngest daughter of six, she explains that she helped with both outside and inside chores. After graduating high school in 1933, Pearl married her husband Al and moved to California to work and save for their own farm. They returned to Moscow in 1936 and purchased the farm she still owns. She describes the closeness of her immediate family and the struggles they endured as they built their farm. She and her husband worked for the University of Idaho, until his death in 1976. She worked there for another three years before retiring. 

12 86

Van Winkle, Cecilia Nordstrom. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, photographs, and paper by Celena Kathan, 1994. Born 1914; lived Birkenfield, Oregon; Stockton, California; Spokane, Washington. Cecilia describes her early childhood and life on her family's farm in Birkenfield, Oregon. She talks about her school experiences, the chores she did around the house, and spending time with her friends. After graduating high school, Cecilia attended Oregon State College and graduated in 1937 with a degree in Home Economics and Education. She began teaching and met her husband at a school function. Cecilia describes the moment she heard about Pearl Harbor, and talks about the rationing during the war. In 1943, she married Alfred Van Winkle in Stockton, California, while he was on leave from the Army. Eventually, they returned to the Pacific Northwest and had six children. They finally moved to Spokane, Washington and Cecilia quit teaching to raise the children. She talks about how involved she was in her children's lives. 

12 87

White, Elmina. Paper by Sandra Gray, 1994. Elmina was born in Walla Walla, Washington and graduated from Washington State College in 1909. She taught at Everett High School, in Seattle, Washington and began to develop her leadership skills there by developing the school's first lunch program. Later, she moved to Spokane, Washington and became St. Luke Hospital's first dietician. Joining the extension service in 1917, Elmina went out in to her community to teach about health and nutrition. In 1925, she returned to Washington State College as the first woman Assistant Extension Director in the U.S. In 1929 she took the same position in Hawaii, but returned to Washington state in 1930 as the first Dean of the School of Home Economics. The author explains Elmina's importance to Washington State University and the School of Home Economics and Agriculture, as well as her value to the local farming and 4-H community. 

12 88

Wicks, Grace. Interview (microcassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Leigh Hadaway. Born 1906; lived Moscow, Idaho. She describes her early childhood on a farm fed by the Clearwater river. She talks about the difficulties her family endured during World War I; two of her brothers died while serving in the military. Grace attended the University of Idaho, majoring in English and minoring in Piano, and graduated in 1933. She was a member of Alpha Phi sorority and describes college life and how she met her husband of 38 years. Grace became Idaho's first woman County Commissioner in 1960 and worked hard to develop jobs and teach practical skills to young people in her community. She taught "professional behavior" as a faculty wife in the residence halls at University of Idaho for 21 years. After her husband died, she became very active in the Latah County Historical Society. and helped with its museum. 

12 89

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 6 Miscellaneous 1979-1994 

Box Folder

Armitage, Susan. Memos regarding the transmission of oral histories to MASC (1989-1994). 

13 90

Carpenter, Nora Carr. Paper by Randi Sue Gordon, undated, c.a. 1987/1988. Born, 1870; lived Girard, Illinois. This paper describe the life and experiences of Nora Carr Carpenter as a young woman during the Victorian era. It talks about how she was privileged and had more freedom than most other girls her age, explaining that her family was wealthy. At the age of 20, Nora went to Boston, Massachusetts to study music at the New England Conservatory for Music and became a music teacher at 26. Nora began writing to her future husband Frank after the death of her father at 17, but they did not marry until Nora was 38. She moved to Cle Elum, Washington, had a daughter, and settled into the life of an upper-class lady. Frank Carpenter was elected mayor of Cle Elum, and Nora traveled all around the Pacific Northwest with her daughter Margaret. The rest of the paper is an analysis of gender stereotypes faced by Nora during the period. 

13 91

Chaussee, Helen D. The Olden Days(Rockville, MD: Locus Press, 1979). This is a published pamphlet containing an autobiographical narrative of Helen's experiences during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, as well as of daily life in the early twentieth century. For interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Sandy Greenwalt, 1990, see box 4 folder 23 in this collection. 

13 92

This item was moved to the WSU Centennial Oral History Project (UA 202) on 11/01/2011. 

13 93

Warnick, Kathleen Maxwell Orr Porter. This is a family history, collected from numerous members of the Peeples and Orr families, discussing everyday life during the 1920s and 1930s, family accomplishments and remembrances, and accounts of their educations. Titled. Margret Peeples and the Orr Girls, this volume contains photos and anecdotes from several members of the family that were obtained at a reunion in 1990. For an oral interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Jennifer Porter, 1992, see box 9 folder 65 in this collection. 

13 94

Smith, Betty Jane Burnett. Interview (audiocassette with consent form), summary, and paper by Malia Martine, 1991. Born 1916, lived Portland, Oregon; Seattle, Washington. Betty Jane describes her early childhood, playing with her friends and spending time with her family. She attended the University of Oregon and pledged Alpha Phi Sorority. Although she did not finish, she talks fondly about her years in college, and about how she met her husband. She describes the early years of her marriage, raising her children, having her sons sent to Vietnam, and the joys of grandparenting. 

13 95

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